0000000016 00000 n Instead the swelling increases to about 5-8 cm in diameter, and pushes the skin up by about 1 cm. The long cold winters in these countries, often with frost, make conditions that are not suitable for tsetse. trailer �g`������"�|�R�^r'0L�k�g���@����L����2�侢k��i �b��f_�K�W�7�4_ �x��Ü*�KYx^ $7�`����Ȩ�EF����M�� ����ZR�43�?\ԟ�mF#�&e�E �e�F xref u�c�"�c�?h��gy��0Z��]��p�C?���'�]�o�>B�\�����n������ou��/W�D�������;������w�8ey8���Ά�C��9��t�7k�[��z�).�tF�1�\Ӂ��o�P�Ib 1m�����N;|NI�5�� }�1�. Wear neutral-colored clothing. Its distribution is not accurately known in all countries. No reservoirs exist in this species of the disease. 0000008452 00000 n The tsetse fly can bite through thin fabrics, so clothing should be made of medium-weight material. The tsetse fly is attracted to bright colors and very dark colors. H��W�n�6�Z_�%�2P�|�O0�[email protected]`d:�@�Iv&���P��d��P��2�s��܇`JB�$Ȑ�B`К�`����5��,SJI �Q����'�u��:?���s�@�p������;[�'Tr��@Z'y�{r]$���-��X]��Qׅ�҃��?�����~������Ҟ �U�? 116 0 obj <>stream This probably helps to limit the distribution of most species with the exception of some morsitans group species and G. longipennis. %%EOF ��` ��׊����M��� QС�t��L2�l��! 0000006369 00000 n vegetation), which is affected primarily by climate and human activities. The distribution patterns of the fusca group species are of three main types. The boundary separating the two subspecies G.m. ���)p Distribution of Glossina brevipalpis(Map 5.7). Map 5.10 Map to show the boundaries and names of those African countries that have tsetse infestations. This nap will be revised from time to tine by national headquarters. ���)p Tsetse flies are solely responsible for the cyclical transmission of the trypanosomes that are the causative agents of sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) and nagana or animal African trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock. The flies are attracted to moving vehicles. �B��)t��d��n�u�����w�{��~G������w�;��~G������w�;��ss��7�\�\����O�)�*�*�*�*�*��Soʹ:�eo�ޔ�)zS���Mٛ�7eo����������{�=��~��������07_dX�ʙ�f�̘[�Y�Y�%֗|f��%�Y�%c�߸�9^pP|�82��f>ϣ�>��(�O�����v�����]x' M/7� The word "tsetse" means "fly" in Tswana, and refers to all 23 species of the fly genus Glossina.Tsetse flies feed on the blood of vertebrate animals (including humans) and in doing so, transmit the sleeping sickness parasite from infected animals to uninfected ones. 5.6.6 Combination of these factors Very often certain of these factors work together and limit the distribution of tsetse. Members of this group, when they penetrate generally drier areas, do not move far away from free water (rivers and lakes): but in generally more humid areas they may not have to live so close to free water. Glossina caliginea and G. pallicera are mainly limited to mangrove and thick forest areas of West Africa, as far east as Gabon. However, the typical head of a boil never forms. H�\�]��0���������}�! The tsetse fly—an insect that transmits trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness—could soon die out in Zimbabwe's Zambezi Valley due to rising temperatures, a study said Tuesday. Inspect vehicles for tsetse flies before entering. Active during the day, the tsetse fly is attracted to large moving objects and the colour blue. The rinderpest outbreak that swept through Africa at the end of the last century destroyed most of the animals fed upon by tsetse and the fly belts were greatly reduced. (see also Map 5.9). The first stage is the bite from the tsetse fly, after which the parasite infects the person's blood. endstream endobj 92 0 obj <> endobj 93 0 obj <> endobj 94 0 obj <>stream endstream endobj 95 0 obj <> endobj 96 0 obj <>stream Taken together, the remainder of the fuscagroup species are limited to the more thickly forested areas of Africa, and so have a pattern of distribution rather like that of G. palpalis/G. For example, Glossina austeni could probably live in much of West Africa, but it has never had the chance to invade those areas, because of the high ground, unsuitable habitats and great distances between these parts. Map 5.1 Distribution of Glossina morsitans (in black) and the closely related G. swynnertoni(stippled). Map 5.4 Distribution of Glossina palpalis and G. fuscipes. 0000001819 00000 n Tsetse flies are robust, 6–15mm in length, and can be distinguished from other biting flies by their forward-pointing mouthparts (proboscis) and characteristic wing venation (Fig. 5.6.4 Lack of food Insufficient food may cause some areas to be without tsetse, even though the areas may be suitable in other respects. <<434C9B491F31CD4AAD549F74C74423BA>]>> endstream endobj 81 0 obj <> endobj 82 0 obj <>/Encoding<>>>>> endobj 83 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 84 0 obj <> endobj 85 0 obj <> endobj 86 0 obj <> endobj 87 0 obj [/ICCBased 110 0 R] endobj 88 0 obj <> endobj 89 0 obj <>stream In cold weather the fly cannot move about to feed. 0000004527 00000 n In general, it occurs in areas more to the south than the G. morsitans belts in most savannah areas, although there is some overlap between the two species. It is also present in Ethiopia, Sudan, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Zaire and Uganda. fuscipes(Map 5.4), with the difference that because fusca group flies do not usually penetrate very far up gallery forests, their distribution is more limited than that pair. !&�:���u� T�dE�x���d�Y�Ah��m��o�}7���xma2��o�p���&�c8w}�,L�5�����\�!�c��.��tͪ��?��4>�Ӻ��s��0v���M~�ßp �df�2m8e��K=|�/���}�w��%������L1_/٥���6�M���j������B��w_=�O��z̪/�Y�~%��Kr ސ7�-yޑw�wr,PY�o1�]���b�%淖�[�#;�'{0�Yt�JV0{�y���i��ud�\A�c�`�:�:� centralis and G.m. 0000032908 00000 n Glossina austeni (Map 5.3) occurs only in the east coast countries of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and northeastern parts of South Africa. Sometimes, an expansion of a tsetse belt in one country may cause the belt to come up to and cross an international boundary. Glossina fuscipes (Map 5.4) occupies a very large inland block of Africa centred on Zaire, but covering some of the land in all of the countries surrounding Zaire, as well as Gabon, Cameroon and the southern part of Chad. It is only near to rivers that some bushes and trees can grow, giving shade and cooler conditions and trapping some moisture, allowing flies to survive. Where the general climate is too hot, tsetse flies may make use of local cooler areas, for example along rivers having gallery forest, in which to live. In addition, much further to the east are some smaller isolated belts on the Sudan-Ethiopian border. There is a large belt west of Lake Tanganyika, in Zaire. 0000015419 00000 n Tsetse are believed to be extremely old insects since fossil tsetse have been identified from the Florissant Fossil Beds in Colorado and some species have also been described in Arabia. In the part of its distribution from Cameroon to Angola, it has a long common boundary with G. fuscipes, with which there is little overlap. 2.1). Had they done so, probably much of the east coast would have been infested by some of these species. Glossina swynnertoni (Map 5.1) is limited to belts in Kenya and Tanzania between Lake Victoria and the Indian Ocean. 0000007427 00000 n There are about 30 known species and subspecies of tsetse flies belonging to the genus Glossina. Glossina morsitans (Map 5.1) is the most widespread species. 0000019630 00000 n In general, tsetse flies occur in woodlands, though they may fly out a short distance into open grasslands when attracted by a host animal. There are good reasons why the field officer should take an interest in tsetse distribution in areas wider than just his own country (Map 5.9).