American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. The Trout Fishery in Shenandoah National Park. The wild rainbows that inhabit Pass Run within the park are believed to have descended from hatchery stock introduced downstream during the 1950s. 22835, (540) 999-3500 Naturalized rainbow trout populations within the park likely have adapted to and assumed a similar ecosystem role to native brook trout populations. Rainbow trout, also called redband trout, are gorgeous fish, with coloring and patterns that vary widely depending on habitat, age, and spawning condition. North of Roanoke, the distribution of rainbow trout is more limited to spring creeks of which Pass Run is a good example. It depends on clean gravel areas for spawning. Common Name: Rainbow trout. In addition, construction of dams, road crossings, and other structures impede the ability of rainbow trout to migrate upstream and downstream, which is critical to successful completion of their life cycles. Luray, VA Unlike brook and brown trout, wild rainbow trout (within their native range) typically spawns during the late winter and spring with peak spawning activity in March and April when water temperature are between 10 and 15°C. 2-3 Months. Rainbow trout have also successfully reproduced intermittently in the North Fork Moorman's River since 1957 as the result of stocking programs downstream. 3-4 Days. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries Species Description, Shenandoah National Park USFWS. Maximum known longevity is 11 years but 7 … Gutting the trout is essential prior to freezing. 1079 pp. Annual stocking continues in many lakes to augment low natural recruitment. Wild rainbow trout populations within Virginia most often occur in small rocky streams in forested landscapes. The average life span of wild rainbow trout in Virginia waters is very similar to that of brook trout. Rainbow trout, including steelhead forms, generally spawn in early to late spring (January to June in the Northern Hemisphere and September to November in the Southern Hemisphere) when water temperatures reach at least 42 to 44 °F (6 to 7 °C). Mid-side markings include a wide red, pink or purple band that may either be a continuous band or be broken into a blotched pattern. The name Oncorhynchus means "hooked snout" in reference to the distinctly hooked upper or lower jaw of mature males. Family: Salmonidae. Like the brown trout, rainbows have been extensively introduced and now occur on every major continent except Antarctica. Within the few park streams either inhabited by naturalized rainbow trout or where individual fish have been encountered as the result of stocking programs downstream, the sizes of individual fish typically range from 7 to 12 inches in total length. The dorsal, adipose and caudal fins are light olive to amber marked with dark colored spots. Naturalized populations support major sportfisheries in tributaries of Lake Erie, Ontario and the Finger Lakes. Life Span and Reproduction. Maximum known longevity is 11 years but 7 year olds are typically the oldest in most populations. Division of Natural and Cultural Resources, Luray, Virginia 22835. Rainbow trout are considered native in the North Pacific Ocean and associated drainages from the Amur River in eastern Asia, north along the Pacific slope including the KamchatkaPeninsula and extreme northeastern Russia and along the Pacific slope of North America from Alaska south to northern Mexico. Lower sides transition from silvery to white with white underside. Back and sides are marked with dark olive to black spots. LIFE SPAN: 6 years. 395. Maximum known longevity is 11 years but 7 year olds are typically the oldest in most populations. 1993. Maturation begins as early as one year with average survival of three to four years. The life cycle of the Rainbow Trout continues into the egg stage again. Naturalized rainbow trout populations within other portions of native brook trout range have proven to be problematic for brook trout, principally via displacement. Special Scientific Report-Fisheries; No. Such is the case in within some sections of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and vicinity, and in southwestern Virginia. Rainbows typically migrate upstream to spawning areas with males arriving first. Rainbow trout are not as closely associated with streambed or benthic habitats as are brown trout nor are they prone to frequent deeply shaded habitats like brook trout. Rainbows prefer open runs where they tend to feed at the surface more frequently than the other two trout species. 1961. Like the other trout species, rainbow trout are opportunistic feeders, readily taking aquatic insects encountered in drifting water flow and terrestrial insects that fall into the stream. Other naturalized stream populations with more localized ranges are found in the eastern Adirondack, Catskill and Allegheny Mountains. Atkinson, J.B. 2005. Competition factors are likely magnified during periodic surges within the rainbow trout population. It depends on clean gravel areas for spawning. Within the park, rainbow trout are likely preyed upon by northern water snakes, mink, kingfishers, herons and the occasional otter. Redds are typically excavated by females in gravel runs and incubation periods vary with water temperatures but are typically less than those of brook and brown trout due to increased springtime temperatures. The name mykiss is a vernacular from the Russian far east where the species was first described in the late 1700s. Rainbow trout were first liberated in stream habitats within and downstream of the park in 1943. It has been introduced to every watershed. Rainbow Trout lives in coldwater streams and lakes. Duane Raver, U.S. Rainbow Trout lives in coldwater streams and lakes. 16 pp. Lower fins are typically pale shades of amber, orange, red, purple or gray and the anal and pelvic fins are often white tipped. It is native to the western US, Canada and Alaska. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. The degree of displacement pressure on brook trout posed by these rainbow trout populations is currently unknown. Shenandoah National Park Fisheries Monitoring Program Annual Report for 2004.