The theme is quickly taken up by the piano soloist and developed throughout the long movement. After an exquisite B section which continues the tranquil mood, the shadows return in the agitated C section. This solo theme alternates with the orchestra’s ominous drumroll music, as if the piano is in dialogue with some antagonist. A second melody is touched upon by the piano where the mood is still dark but strangely restless. Robot. Concertos Nos. [1], A few days after the first performance, the composer's father, Leopold, visiting in Vienna, wrote to his daughter Nannerl about her brother's recent success: "[I heard] an excellent new piano concerto by Wolfgang, on which the copyist was still at work when we got here, and your brother didn't even have time to play through the rondo because he had to oversee the copying operation."[1]. Don’t miss Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. After the cadenza, the mood clears considerably and the piece is now fully sunny in character, as we are now in the parallel key of D major, and the bright happy melody is taken up, this time by the oboes and then winds. Near the end of the movement, the orchestra comes to a grand pause, and the soloist plays a cadenza—an extended unaccompanied passage that Mozart would have improvised on the spot. Mozart titles the slow second movement “Romance,” a term which usually indicates a piece in a simple, vocal style with a main theme and one or two contrasting middle sections. The concerto is scored for solo piano, flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani and strings. Many cadenzas have since been written for the concerto (see the end of this post). The new stormy material is turbulent, agitated and ominous theme, in the relative key of G minor, which greatly contrasts the peaceful mood at the starting of the movement. The concerto is scored for solo piano, flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani and strings. This theme alternates with contrasting ideas, including a cheerful, major-key tune for woodwinds. 2, 3, and 4, all composed by 1766). This lyrical, passionate, tender and romantic melody paints a picture of peace and a sense of harmony between the piano and the orchestra and has also inspired its title 'Romanze'. However, according to Leopold's report, at the first performance of Piano Concerto No. The solo piano repeats the theme before a full orchestral passage develops the passage, thereby rounding up the concerto with a jubilant finish. It is written in the key of D minor. A slightly brighter mood exists in the second theme of F major (the relative major), but it never becomes jubilant. After an orchestral passage, the soloist reenters with a brighter version of the music it first played. The first movement was also heard in American composer James Hewitt’s Medley Overture in D minor-major . 20 in D minor, K. 466, was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1785. The young Ludwig van Beethoven admired this concerto and kept it in his repertoire. The fire and brimstone of D minor return as the soloist launches the finale with a theme punctuated by hair-raising, dissonant chords. Among Mozart's piano works, none are explicitly written with a part for a pedal-board. At the theater, 18th-century audiences typically demanded happy endings, even from tragedies—in Mozart’s opera, for instance, after Don Giovanni descends into hell the other characters return to assure us that “Thus is the fate of all evildoers.” The cheerful woodwind theme that returns to end the concerto seems to offer listeners a similar optimistic resolution. returns in the dark, main key of D minor. As was common practice in Mozart’s day, the first movement begins with an orchestral introduction. Required fields are marked *. Based on handwriting analysis of the autographs they are believed to date from … After the transition, the woodwinds once again begin their contrasting idea, but this time it leads to a fully developed melody for the soloist in F major. A series of sharp piano chords snaps the bright melody and then begin passages in D minor on solo piano again, taken up by full orchestra. The Romanze second movement, in the subdominant of D minor's relative key, (F major), B♭ major, is a five-part rondo (ABACA)[3] with a coda. International Music Score Library Project, List of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Piano_Concerto_No._20_(Mozart)&oldid=989039087, Piano concertos by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 18:31. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. In addition to the D minor tonality, the uneasy syncopated violins recall Don Giovanni’s confrontation with the statue that drags him to hell; the drumroll-like figures in the low strings resemble the statue’s knocks at the door: Your email address will not be published. a cheerful, major-key tune for woodwinds. The ensuing coda turns to the bright key of D major. This site uses cookies. a fully developed melody for the soloist in F major. 20, an eclectic program of works by Mozart, Debussy, and Webern. D minor in particular seemed to have had a special significance for him; both his opera Don Giovanni and his Requiem are centered on this key. The fact that Mozart had a piano with a pedal-board is reported in a letter written by his father, Leopold, who visited his son while he lived in Vienna. The first movement was played in the ballet scene in Series 1 Episode 8 of the television series Mr. The timpani further heighten the tension in the coda before the cadenza. The orchestra pauses as if taking a breath. Following his usual practice, Mozart performed the solo part himself, leading the orchestra from the keyboard. The orchestra pauses as if taking a breath, and the woodwinds attempt to introduce a contrasting idea; the stormy music, however, resumes before it can fully unfold. Your email address will not be published. The music becomes more intense before dying away to a reprise of the movement’s main ideas. Learn more and get tickets. As is typical with concertos, it is in three movements: The first movement starts off the concerto in the dark tonic key of D minor with the strings restlessly but quietly building up to a full forte. Explore the 2020–21 season and purchase your subscription today! Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Ludwig van Beethoven, Clara Schumann, Johannes Brahms, and Ferruccio Busoni all played it as part of their careers as pianists, and they all also composed cadenzas for it (see links). This piano that Mozart owned is on display at Mozart House in Salzburg, but currently it has no pedal-board. a brighter version of the music it first played. Early Mozart concertos. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Because Mozart was also an expert on the organ, operating a pedal-board with his feet was no harder than using only his hands. After many developments, the orchestra stops and the soloist plays a final cadenza. It continues to move and delight audiences today. 24 in C minor being the other). The beginning features a solo piano playing the flamboyant and charming main B♭ major melody without accompaniment. The Piano Concerto No. 20 March 26, 28, and 29!