[18][19] An Alaskan adult female eagle that was considered outsized weighed some 7.4 kg (16 lb). [58] Once North Pacific salmon die off after spawning, usually local bald eagles eat salmon carcasses almost exclusively. The calls of young birds tend to be more harsh and shrill than those of adults. In Russia this eagle is a protected species and in Japan is considered a national symbol. The adult is mainly brown with a white head and tail. In the northern half of North America (especially the interior portion), this terrestrial inhabitance by bald eagles tends to be especially prevalent because unfrozen water may not be accessible. [61] Bald eagles also regularly exploit water turbines which produce battered, stunned or dead fish easily consumed. Neither species is known to be dominant, and the outcome depends on the size and disposition of the individual eagles involved. Studies have shown a preference for bodies of water with a circumference greater than 11 km (7 mi), and lakes with an area greater than 10 km2 (4 sq mi) are optimal for breeding bald eagles. [5][103][104] While hunting waterfowl, bald eagles repeatedly fly at a target and cause it to dive repeatedly, hoping to exhaust the victim so it can be caught (white-tailed eagles have been recorded hunting waterfowl in the same way). [38] Similar congregations of wintering bald eagles at open lakes and rivers, wherein fish are readily available for hunting or scavenging, are observed in the northern United States. (You will need to register / login for access). [108] Occasionally, coyotes, bobcats (Lynx rufus) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) can displace eagles from carrion, usually less confident immature birds, as has been recorded in Maine. [112][113] When they approach scavengers like dogs, gulls or vultures at carrion sites, they often aggressively attack them and try to force them to disgorge their food. Steller's Sea Eagle, 250 cm (98.4 inches) Steller’s sea eagle is one of the largest birds of prey found … Wingspan: 2.45 m (8 ft 2 in) average. from Georgia, Louisiana, Florida), with means in between the sexes of 6.83 cm (2.69 in) and 4.12 cm (1.62 in) in culmen length, respectively, from these two areas. Bald eagles are not actually bald; the name derives from an older meaning of the word, "white headed". [43][59], To hunt fish, the eagle swoops down over the water and snatches the fish out of the water with its talons. 5. 68–84 in. When hunting concentrated prey, a successful catch often results in the hunting eagle being pursued by other eagles and needing to find an isolated perch for consumption if it is able to carry it away successfully. [70] Unprecedented photographs of a bald eagle unsuccessfully attempting to prey on a much larger adult trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) in mid-flight were taken in 2012. [125] Six weeks after however, it was discovered that the hawk, nicknamed "Spunky" by biologists monitoring the nest, had grown to fledgeling size and was learning how to hunt, indicating that it successfully survived. [51][55] Eggs in Alaska averaged 130 g (4.6 oz) in mass, while in Saskatchewan they averaged 114.4 g (4.04 oz). Typical wingspan is between 1.8 and 2.3 m (5 ft 11 in and 7 ft 7 in) and mass is normally between 3 and 6.3 kg (6.6 and 13.9 lb). Bald Eagle attacks Black bear again at Redoubt Bay. [120][121] As with their ultimate body size, egg size tends to increase further away from the Equator. [110] Many bald eagles are habitual kleptoparasites, especially in winters when fish are harder to come by. This beast has very powerful talons that allow them to tear and hold prey effortlessly even in the air. Bald eagles have also been recorded catching up to and then swooping under geese in flight, turning over and thrusting their talons into the other bird's breast. Despite its considerably lower population, the bald eagle may come in second amongst all North American accipitrids, slightly behind only the red-tailed hawk, in number of prey species recorded. [8][43][62] Wintering eagles on the Platte River in Nebraska preyed mainly on American gizzard shads and common carp. A pair which has repeatedly failed in breeding attempts may split and look for new mates. [9] However, the two species are roughly equal in size, aggressiveness and physical strength and so competitions can go either way. Location: Russia, Japan, East Asia. [143] Bald eagles, like many birds of prey, were especially affected by DDT due to biomagnification. [159] The bald eagle can be long-lived in captivity if well cared for, but does not breed well even under the best conditions.[160]. [106][107] They are not very selective about the condition or origin, whether provided by humans, other animals, auto accidents or natural causes, of a carcass's presence, but will avoid eating carrion where disturbances from humans are a regular occurrence. [124] Additionally, as shown by a pair of eagles in Shoal Harbor Migratory Bird Sanctuary located near Sidney, British Columbia on June 9, 2017, bald eagles have been recently recorded to occasionally adopt other raptor fledglings into their nests. [124] However, in the Chesapeake Bay area, 100% of 39 radio-tagged nestlings survived to their first year. After five to six weeks, the attendance of parents usually drops off considerably (with the parents often perching in trees nearby). On June 20, 1782, the Continental Congress adopted the design for the Great Seal of the United States depicting a bald eagle grasping 13 arrows and an olive branch with thirteen leaves, with its talons. [21][22] The bill size is unusually variable as Alaskan eagles could be up to twice the bill length of "southern birds" (i.e. In the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States. [55] More than 400 species are known to be included in the bald eagle's prey spectrum, far more than its ecological equivalent in the Old World, the white-tailed eagle, is known to take. [6], The bald eagle has a body length of 70–102 cm (28–40 in). The only larger species of raptor-like bird is the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), a New World vulture which today is not generally considered a taxonomic ally of true accipitrids.