During the dedication, not one person said a word. After receiving a formal education, Barton became a teacher at the age of 15. The site was "lost" in part because Washington, DC realigned its addressing system in the 1870s. Clara Barton and her small staff received over 63,000 requests for help. She learned how to store and distribute medical supplies and offered emotional support to the soldiers by keeping their spirits high. Fraternally yours, (Signed) Clara Barton. In 1975, the Clara Barton National Historic Site, located at 5801 Oxford Road, Glen Echo, Maryland, was established as a unit of the National Park Service at Barton's home, where she spent the last 15 years of her life. This friendship lasted for many years, eventually turning into a romance. Once completed, though, Barton was replaced as principal by a man elected by the school board. The operation established an orphanage for children. Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born on December 25, 1821, in North Oxford, Massachusetts and was named after the titular character of Samuel Richardson's novel Clarissa. [48], Barton was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973. [2] She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973.[3]. I wonder if a soldier ever does mend a bullet hole in his coat?”, Barton made a profound impression on Union army surgeons at Antietam. She arrived at a field hospital at midnight with a large number of supplies to help the severely wounded soldiers. Barton finally succeeded during the administration of President Chester Arthur, using the argument that the new American Red Cross could respond to crises other than war such as natural disasters like earthquakes, forest fires, and hurricanes. Barton published her autobiography in 1907, titled The Story of My Childhood. Victims within the Massachusetts regiment were transported to Washington D.C. after the violence, which happened to be Barton's home at the time. Barton was working for the Patent Office when the Civil War broke out on April 12, 1861. In 1869, during her trip to Geneva, Switzerland, Barton was introduced to the Red Cross and Dr. Appia; he later would invite her to be the representative for the American branch of the Red Cross and help her find financial benefactors for the start of the American Red Cross. “I may sometimes be willing to teach for nothing, but if paid at all, I shall never do a man’s work for less than a man’s pay,” Barton said later. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Barton played an integral role in the passing of the “American Amendment” to the Geneva Treaty in 1884 which expanded the role of the International Red Cross to include assisting victims of natural disasters. One surgeon, Dr. James Dunn, said of Barton, “In my feeble estimation, General McClellan, with all his laurels, sinks into insignificance beside the true heroine of the age, the angel of the battlefield.”. [4] In 1852, she was contracted to open a free school in Bordentown, which was the first ever free school in New Jersey. [41][42], A stamp with a portrait of Barton and an image of the American Red Cross symbol was issued in 1948. Barton herself traveled along with five other Red Cross expeditions to the Armenian provinces in the spring of 1896, providing relief and humanitarian aid. Her mother decided she should focus on more lady-like skills. Clara Barton was born on Christmas day 1821. Clara Barton died in 1912, at the age of 90, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland. In 1905, Barton established the National First Aid Association of America which made first aid kits and worked closely with local fire and police departments to create ambulance brigades. There was no more to be done for him and I left him to his rest. Jane Addams (1860-1935) was a peace activist and a leader of the settlement house movement in America. Barton became President of the American branch of the society, which held its first official meeting at her I Street apartment in Washington, DC, May 21, 1881. Clara Barton at Antietam. They saw the position as head of a large institution to be unfitting for a woman. President Chester A. Arthur finally signed the treaty in 1882 and the American Association of the Red Cross (later called the American Red Cross) was born, with Barton at its helm. How did Clara Barton die? This was done in order to honor the women and their services. Whenever possible, Barton recorded the personal information of the soldiers she cared for. [19] She was also known as the "Angel of the Battlefield"[13] after she came to the aid of the overwhelmed surgeon on duty following the battle of Cedar Mountain in Northern Virginia in August 1862. ", This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 15:39. At the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War, in 1870, she assisted the Grand Duchess of Baden in the preparation of military hospitals and gave the Red Cross society much aid during the war. [2] He was a soldier under the command of General Anthony Wayne in his crusade against the Indians in the northwest. Of the 22,000 men located by the Missing Soldiers Office, 13,000 were in one place: Andersonville Prison . Clara Barton never married or had children. Her job was to find missing soldiers and, if possible, inform their families of their fate. She was demoted to "female assistant" and worked in a harsh environment until she had a nervous breakdown along with other health ailments, and quit.[10]. In 1878, she met with President Rutherford B. Hayes, who expressed the opinion of most Americans at that time which was the U.S. would never again face a calamity like the Civil War. Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, of the National Museum of American History are focused on the United States at war. Clara Barton: Professional Angel Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, (1987). Clara Barton died on April 12, 1912, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland at age 91. A monument in her honor stands at Antietam National Battlefield. As the need for care and medical provisions grew, Barton gathered provisions from her home and spearheaded a campaign to solicit additional relief items from friends and the public. [21], After the war, she ran the Office of Missing Soldiers, at 437 ½ Seventh Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. in the Gallery Place neighborhood. Early life and career Clara Barton was born on December 25, 1821, in North Oxford, Massachusetts. [18], In 1864, she was appointed by Union General Benjamin Butler as the "lady in charge" of the hospitals at the front of the Army of the James. She believed in equal rights and helped everyone regardless of race, gender or economic station. "The Centenary of Clara Barton and Recent Biographical Sketches of Her Life and Achievements." [31] Within days after the Johnstown Flood in 1889, she led her delegation of 50 doctors and nurses in response. She was reportedly an independent workaholic who fiercely protected her vision of what the Red Cross should be. [27] In 1873, she began work on this project. The first local society was founded August 22, 1881 in Dansville, Livingston County, New York, where she maintained a country home. The cause of her death was chronic pneumonia, with which she was stricken about a year ago. Appointed assistant curator of ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History in 1926, she embarked on two dozen trips to the South Pacific to ...read more, Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an abolitionist, human rights activist and one of the first leaders of the woman’s rights movement. [5] Clara was persistent in offering assistance, much to the gratitude of her family. One unlucky soldier was shot and killed as Barton tended him. The National Park Service has restored eleven rooms, including the Red Cross offices, the parlors, and Barton's bedroom. Clara Barton and the American Red Cross. After two years with the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), ...read more, Cultural anthropologist and writer Margaret Meade (1901-1978) was born in Philadelphia and graduated from Barnard College in 1923. At school, she became close friends with Nancy Fitts; she is the only known friend Barton had as a child due to her extreme timidity. Clara Barton Birthplace Museum. Clara Barton Missing Soldiers Office Museum. [2] Ladies' Aid societies helped in sending bandages, food, and clothing that would later be distributed during the Civil War. Domestically in 1884 she helped in the floods on the Ohio river, provided Texas with food and supplies during the famine of 1887 and took workers to Illinois in 1888 after a tornado and that same year to Florida for the yellow fever epidemic.