Important exponents of Buddhist modernism include Anagarika Dharmapala (1864–1933) and the American convert Henry Steel Olcott, the Chinese modernists Taixu (1890–1947) and Yin Shun (1906–2005), Zen scholar D.T. Defoort, Carine. [125], The Opium war of 1839–42 saw the beginning of Western and Japanese invasions and exploitation of China which was humiliating to Chinese thinkers. Eastern philosophy has instilled the belief of collectivism and living in harmony, while Western philosophy puts forward the idea of practising self-preservation and making decisions that benefit oneself. Delhi, India: Moltilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 2002). Naravane. [67] Jainism strongly upholds the individualistic nature of the soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions, and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone are responsible for one's liberation.[68]. As shown by the Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra (c. 14th century CE), Sāmkhya continued to develop throughout the medieval period. Unfortunately, this date makes sense only in Europe: A.D. 476. The focus here is on the period of ancient Chinese history that begins with the advent of writing (as also for the Ancient Near East, Mesoamerica, and the Indus Valley) and ends with the period that corresponds best with a conventional date for the end of antiquity. Carine Defoort, herself a specialist in Chinese thought, has offered support for such a "family" view of philosophy,[138] while Rein Raud has presented an argument[139] against it and offered a more flexible definition of philosophy that would include both Western and Asian thought on equal terms. They also held that the Vedas were "eternal, authorless, [and] infallible" and that Vedic injunctions and mantras in rituals are prescriptive actions of primary importance. Indian philosophers developed a system of epistemological reasoning (pramana) and logic and investigated topics such as Ontology (metaphysics, Brahman-Atman, Sunyata-Anatta), reliable means of knowledge (epistemology, Pramanas), value system (axiology) and other topics. He anticipated that the Upanishads (primary Hindu scriptures) would have a much greater influence in the West than they have had. There were two major philosophical trends during this period. Vaiśeṣika is a naturalist school of atomism, which accepts only two sources of knowledge, perception, and inference. [52], Mīmāṃsā is a school of ritual orthopraxy and is known for its hermeneutical study and interpretation of the Vedas. pp. Both these types of philosophies have shaped the mindsets of many people, and in their ways have helped build the world that we know today. Eastern Philosophy is expansive, beginning as far back as 5,000 years ago. (1951). [45] Nyāya also traditionally defended a form of philosophical realism.[47]. pp. [120] The most important philosophers of this movement were He Yan, Wang Bi, the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, Ge Hong, and Guo Xiang. The influence of Marxism on modern Chinese political thought is vast, especially through the work of Mao Zedong, the most famous thinker of Chinese Marxist Philosophy. Therefore, they sought to investigate the sources of correct knowledge or epistemology. Jeaneane Fowler (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press. Karl Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass. It was during this period that Hindu modernists presented a single idealized and united "Hinduism." It is also, as Aristotle (384 – 322 b.c.e.) Halbfass, Wilhelm (2007a), "Research and reflection: Responses to my respondents. [109] They were initially influenced by Mohist ideas. [69] While Jainism traces its philosophy from teachings of Mahavira and other Tirthankaras, various Jain philosophers from Kundakunda and Umasvati in ancient times to Yasovijaya and Shrimad Rajchandra in recent times have contributed to Indian philosophical discourse in uniquely Jain ways. Ancient eastern philosophy unravels the Tao, Zen and other holistic ways of thinking about the self and the universe. Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa (fl. Philosophy East & West. 112–113. "[90] Forces which influenced modernists like Dhammapala and Yin Shun included Enlightenment values and Western Science. The late 19th and early 20th century saw Chinese thinkers such as Zhang Zhidong looking to Western practical knowledge as a way to preserve traditional Chinese culture, a doctrine that he defined as “Chinese Learning as Substance and Western Learning as Function” (Zhongti Xiyong).[126]. The most important characteristic of the Eastern world view - one could almost say the essence of it - is the awareness of the unity and mutual interrelation of all things and events, the experience of all phenomena in the world as manifestations of a basic oneness. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. [73] They believed the viewpoint of relinquishing pleasure to avoid pain was the "reasoning of fools". Fa (standards: laws) and meaning changes in Chinese philosophy. [104] Other influential classical Confucian philosophers include Mencius and Xun Kuang who famously disagreed on the innate moral nature of humans. Hansen, Chad. However, there are other methods of classification; Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Hindu Indian philosophy by including those that belong to the Śaiva and Raseśvara traditions. It was a major school of thought and rival of Confucianism and Taoism during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods (c. 770–221 BCE). Cārvāka or Lokāyata was an atheistic philosophy of scepticism and materialism, who rejected the Vedas and all associated supernatural doctrines. (New York: Asia Publishing House, 1964. pp. Cārvāka deemed the Vedas to be tainted by the three faults of untruth, self-contradiction, and tautology. Lord Shang. This is a wide-ranging alphabetical list of philosophers from the Eastern traditions of philosophy, with special interest in Indo ... 220 CE – 907 CE (Three Kingdoms period to Tang dynasty. [48] The work also famously argues against a creator God (Ishvara),[49] a debate which became central to Hinduism in the medieval period. [132] The idea states that an individual is "the master of his destiny"[133] and that the North Korean masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction".[133]. [75], Ājīvika was founded by Makkhali Gosala, it was a Śramaṇa movement and a major rival of early Buddhism and Jainism. Philosophy is the noble art of thinking carefully, persistently, even obsessively, about the Big Questions of life — the meaning of life and with it the business of living, that is living well. Nyāya traditionally accepts four Pramanas as reliable means of gaining knowledge – Pratyakṣa (perception), Anumāṇa (inference), Upamāṇa (comparison and analogy) and Śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts). Xuanxue ("deep learning", also "Neo-Taoism") was a major philosophical movement influenced by Confucian scholarship, which focused on the interpretation of the Yijing, Daodejing, and Zhuangzi and which flourished during the third to sixth centuries CE. It is based partially on earlier theories by Marx and Lenin, but rejects the urban proletariat and Leninist emphasis on heavy industrialization in favor of a revolution supported by the peasantry, and a decentralized agrarian economy based on many collectively worked farms. "Is There Such a Thing as Chinese Philosophy?