At a time when all services were very short of equipment, the Army high command—which was still dominated by cavalry officers—clearly had a different set of priorities from technocrats like Harris,[22] who quipped that the army commanders would only be happy with the tank if someone developed one that "ate hay and thereafter made noises like a horse". [39] He was advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 11 June 1942. Sir Arthur 'Bomber' Harris was the RAF chief of The Bomber Command As production of better aircraft and electronic aids increased, Harris pressed for raids on a much larger scale, each to use 1,000 aeroplanes. [83] She later married the Hon. Before he returned to Britain to command No. "Sir Arthur Harris & The Lancaster Bomber" at The British Postal Museum and Archive, House of Lords debate on bombing policy (9 February 1944),, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Statement of 1942, at the start of the bombing campaign against Germany, as quoted in. Bernard Montgomery was one of the few army officers he met while at the college whom he liked, possibly because they shared certain underlying personality characteristics. Germany: Goebbels's speech of February 18th 1943 ("Wollt ihr den totalen krieg ?") Born in Gloucestershire, Harris emigrated to Rhodesia in 1910, aged 17. This is a doctrine to which I could never subscribe. [55], After D-Day (6 June 1944), with the resumption of the strategic bomber campaign over Germany, Harris remained wedded to area bombardment. Radio address (28 July 1942), as quoted by Sir. Harris assisted British Chief of the Air Staff Marshal of the Royal Air Force Charles Portal in carrying out the United Kingdom's most devastating attacks against the German infrastructure and population, including the Bombing of Dresden. "We cut a hole in the nose and rigged up our own bomb racks and I turned those machines into the heaviest and best bombers in the command". Britain: Bomber Harris speech ("They sowed the wind, and now they are going to reap the whirlwind"). 5 Group. I never engaged in these idiotic pamphlet-dropping exercises. Arthur Travers Harris, known as “Bomber” Harris, became commander of RAF Bomber Command in early 1942. Statement on the July 1943 bombings of Hamburg, as quoted in. [76], Disappointed to have missed the opportunity to return to Southern Rhodesia as governor because of the war, Harris wrote to Huggins in June 1945 that he would like to be considered if the office were ever open again, and that he would be interested in other Southern Rhodesian government appointments relating to aviation or perhaps entering politics there. He joined the 1st Rhodesia Regiment at the outbreak of the First World War and saw action in South Africa and South West Africa. [57], The historian Bernard Wasserstein notes that the official history of British strategic bombing says, in what Wasserstein describes as 'an unusually sharp personal observation', that "Harris made a habit of seeing only one side of a question and then of exaggerating it. According to Taylor, this directly affected Harris's attitude concerning the effectiveness of the post-D-Day 1944 directives (orders) to target oil installations, as Harris did not know the Allied High Command was using high-level German sources to assess exactly how much Allied operations were impairing the German war effort. [21] In Mesopotamia he commanded a Vickers Vernon squadron. The American history also includes information from Albert Speer, in which he points out that Bomber Command's night attacks were the most effective. Many senior Allied air commanders still thought area bombing was less effective. He was posted to the Middle East Command in Egypt, as a senior Air Staff Officer. The Nazis entered this war under the rather childish delusion that they were going to bomb everyone else, and nobody was going to bomb them. People talk a lot about picking out targets and bombing them, individual small targets – in the European climate? Whenever the bombing campaign of World War II is considered it must be appreciated that the war was an "integrated process". Harris sailed for England from Beira at the Company administration's expense in August, a member of a 300-man party of white Southern Rhodesian war volunteers. It became an important part of the total war waged against Germany.[41]. As an example, quoting Albert Speer from his book Inside The Third Reich, "ten thousand [88mm] anti-aircraft guns ... could well have been employed in Russia against tanks and other ground targets". [53] After the Southern Rhodesian Prime Minister, Sir Godfrey Huggins, visited Harris in May 1944, Southern Rhodesia asked the UK government to appoint Harris as Governor at the end of the year, Huggins being keen to install a self-identifying Rhodesian in that office rather than a high-ranking British figure. [77], In February 1953 Winston Churchill, now prime minister again, insisted that Harris accept a baronetcy and he became baronet. Later, after severe shortcomings were displayed on operations, the Manchester would be redesigned to become the very effective Avro Lancaster. He arrived in October 1915, moved in with his parents in London and, after unsuccessfully attempting to find a position in first the cavalry, then the Royal Artillery, joined the Royal Flying Corps[11] as a second lieutenant on probation on 6 November 1915. [22] Harris also contributed at this time to the development of bombing using delay-action bombs, which were then applied to keep down uprisings of the Mesopotamian people fighting against British occupation. Harris received such a ticket in 1909, and went to see the play during his summer holidays. [53], After the war, Harris was awarded the Polish Order of Polonia Restituta First Class on 12 June 1945,[70] advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 14 June 1945[71] and appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross of Brazil on 13 November 1945. After a purchasing mission to the United States he was posted to Palestine and Trans-Jordan, where he became Officer Commanding the RAF contingent in that area with promotion to air vice-marshal on 1 July 1939.